(13 percent success rate.) By the time antlerless deer were protected, the drama had been unfolding in Pennsylvania for nearly 250 years. But, amazingly enough, the antlerless allocation continued to rise until 1991, until the familiar howls of the disgruntled rose above common sense. Oh, boy, this was not going to go over well. 1943: Deer population estimated at 900 deer. The white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), also known as the whitetail or Virginia deer, is a medium-sized deer native to North America, Central America, Ecuador, and South America as far south as Peru and Bolivia. Keywords: white tailed deer, history, impact on natural resources Prepared by: David Jackson, Extension Educator Lesson Plan Grade Level: 6-12th Total Time Required for Lesson: 3 hours classroom and research time Setting: Classroom, library, computer room Topics: history, population shifts, impact on natural resources Goals for the Lesson. That's more than six million deer harvested in a quarter of a century. In 15 years, deer populations had gone from one extreme to the other. White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were common in Delaware when European settlers first arrived. The key word, of course, is nearly. Forgetting the common history of the whitetail exposes us to silly mistakes — like forgetting to tuck your shirt in while standing in waist high raspberry brambles in July. In his 1916 annual report he wrote, "In many sections of the state female deer have increased exceedingly, and because of the law giving them absolute protection, have apparently come to believe they belong in a privileged class that can do as they please . In 1682, when William Penn arrived in his newly acquired province, he was flabbergasted at the natural wealth he found. Hemlocks and white pine had their heyday. Isolated from predators and hunters, the deer population grew quickly. That was pretty much the attitude of the general populous of Pennsylvania. 1951: First deer season in 58 years—three days in November. This is why I decided to take this trip through Pennsylvania's deer management history. Hunters in Pennsylvania have been harvesting more than 300,000 deer for more than 20 years. The history of white-tailed deer in Missouri shows the positive and negative influences humans can have on wildlife (Figure 2). And the older I get, the more I realize that life is all about perspective. Recall that there were only 300,000 living deer in the entire country slightly more than a hundred years ago. Upon Completion of this lesson students will be able to: Director Kalbfus noted the gathering clouds on the horizon. The rising tide of deer hit 900,000 in the early '80s, with densities surpassing 50 deer/forest square mile in some areas — way above any habitat-based goal. First, white-tailed deer are widely distributed and much of the species’ range includes some of the most productive habitats on the contin… It became abundant only after the last glaciation when the indigenous Ice Age fauna of the Americas became extinct and competitive and predation pressures were lifted. White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were once so rare that in the early 1900s, Illinois State Museum curators had to arrange to get specimens from Wisconsin for exhibit. In 1950, the Game Commission started a campaign to educate hunters about deer and modern deer management. The "great majority" of hunters were pleased with the new law not only for the protection of the deer herd but for the "feeling of personal security." Proudly founded in 1681 as a place of tolerance and freedom. The white-tailed deer is a specialist in exploiting disrupted forest ecosystems, but it is a poor competitor when faced with other species. That was the same year a bill providing complete protection to antlerless deer and establishing a seasonal one-buck bag limit was passed. Market-hunting and habitat loss nearly extirpated deer from the state by 1900. They also in­habit farm­lands, brushy areas and such des­o­late areas of the west such as the cac­tus and … The Maryland White-tailed Deer Management Plan (‘the deer plan’) documents the history of white-tailed deer and white-tailed deer management in Maryland (information on basic white-tailed deer biology can be found in Appendix 1). The history of white-tailed deer in Missouri shows the positive and negative influences humans can have on wildlife. This column has looked at deer hair and digestion, followed the glamorous life of a biologist, and busted some old wives' tales about our beloved state animal. Well, seven years later, after nearly all of the state's abundant game had disappeared and 70 percent of Penn's Woods had become agricultural fields, Phillips, along with other sportsmen, formed the Pennsylvania Sportsmen's Association. Truer words were never spoken. However, its overabundance where protected from predation and from adequate hunting has led to severe damage to forestry and agriculture, to high levels of collisions with cars and trucks and resulting injuries and fatalities among motorists, as well as to an upswing in dangerous transmissible diseases such as Lyme disease. While clearing the land for agriculture certainly caused its fair share of tree mortality, it was the lumber industry that waged war on Pennsylvania forests. I mean a good thing is a good thing no matter how much there is. (And here I thought numbers in the billions were reserved for the 21st century). The white-tailed deer is Pennsylvania's state animal. And if I was lucky, I would survive the 5-month journey across the Atlantic and in doing so "hit the jackpot.". The White-Tailed Deer are native to different parts of North and South America, and is the most widely-distributed ungulate of the former. In presettlement times, white-tailed deer were fairly abundant in Missouri, especially in the more fertile, diverse habitats of the northern part of the state. White-tailed deer are the smallest of the three members of the deer family found in Michigan, the others being elk and moose. In 1976, the Game Commission adopted a new deer policy recognizing "that deer belong to all citizens of the commonwealth and that recreational hunting is a privilege, not a right." Ross Leffler, a prominent figure in Game Commission and Pennsylvania conservation history, said, "Sportsmanly chivalry has become so deeply-rooted that we are finding the second step in game restoration the hardest — getting sportsmen to realize that it is just as important to limit the number of species to within its food supply…" That was in 1931. Within a remarkably short time restoration efforts in one state after another bore fruit. 1956: Deer trapping and reloca… I do. According to Game Commission records, 1,192 deer were purchased during that period. But fear not, market hunters (those who turned a profit from their ability to harvest wildlife) did their duty by supplying settlements with a steady stream of deer and other game. The population in Pennsylvania hit 300,000 by 1776, a 500 percent increase in just 60 years. That's right — the entire white-tailed population in 1890 was less than last year's statewide harvest. 1934-1942: 296 deer purchased for release from Wisconsin, Michigan, Pennsylvania and North Carolina. It it remained illegal to harvest deer in Delaware until 1954, when the population had rebounded. In less than 15 years the mind-set of hunters went from three days of tracking and killing the "last deer in Pennsylvania" to vehement "opposition to the ruthless slaughter of does." I couldn't get enough of them. In northern Minnesota, where the forest habitat was much different than it … Inconceivable. Hunting by native peoples and predation by large carnivores kept deer populations in balance with … At five, not getting that blue ball in Target was the end of the world, but after graduating high school, obtaining two advanced degrees, making a life in four different states thousands of miles from friends and family, getting married with all its up and downs, that blue ball is small potatoes. It has been locally outcompeted in North America by sika and chital. Deer History. Extensive clearing of land, unregulated hunting, and loss of habitat brought the white-tailed deer population to a record low by the late 1800’s. Hunting is the number one cause of mortality for adult white-tailed deer in many parts of their range, including Tennessee. Mating is quick and unceremonious. Deer populations today have risen to approximately one million deer in North Carolina. But were there any left to live in this new deer utopia? 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