The one-child policy is actually just one among a suite of efforts, such as delayed marriage and contraceptive use, that the Chinese government made in the mid-20th century to combat overpopulation in China. In addition to earlier exceptions such as for minority peoples or for those whose firstborn was handicapped, those measures included allowing rural families in some areas to have two or even three children and permitting parents whose firstborn was a girl or who both were only children to have a second child. Must be sterilised after the first child or abort any future pregnancies. There are about 113 boys born in China for every 100 girls. It did not apply to ethnic minorities throughout the country. China’s one child policy was a population planning policy that was introduced in 1979. China's sex ratio at birth is more imbalanced than the global average. The result of the policy was a general reduction in China’s fertility and birth rates after 1980, with the fertility rate declining and dropping below two children per woman in the mid-1990s. China's one-child rule was created in 1979 by Chinese leader Deng Xiaoping to temporarily limit communist China's population growth. China began promoting the use of birth control and family planning with the establishment of the People’s Republic in 1949, though such efforts remained sporadic and voluntary until after the death of Mao Zedong in 1976. The one-child policy was designed in 1980 as a temporary measure to put a brake on China’s population growth and to facilitate economic growth under a … As part of his master's program,... Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. In 2015, the total fertility rate had dropped to 1.6 children per woman, well below the replacement value of 2.1. The one-child limit was most strictly enforced in densely populated urban areas. crucial facts you should know about the change to China’s one-child policy number 10 what is the one-child policy the one-child policy was first introduced in China between 1978 and 1980 by then leader Deng Xiaoping announced as the Chinese populace rose toward 1 billion people it was a scheme designed to halt population growth with unofficial The Chinese government claims that this policy prevented more than 400 million births. Han Chinese represented more than 91 percent of the Chinese population. The claim by Chinese officials that the one child policy has helped avert 400 million births simply cannot be substantiated by facts. The next year there was a push for families to limit themselves to one child, but that was not evenly enforced across the country. In 1979, three years after Mao’s death, a one-child policy was introduced to control China’s exploding population, help raise living standards and reduce the strain on scarce resources. China does not have enough young people to support the aging demographics, and due to a preference for boys, men of marrying age outnumber women. One Child Policy in China is considered as controversial policy. One major exception to the one-child rule allowed two singleton children (the only offspring of their parents) to marry and have two children. The one-child policy was a program that was implemented nationwide by the Chinese government in 1980 in order to limit most Chinese families to one child each. The one-child policy was enforced for most Chinese into the 21st century, but in late 2015 Chinese officials announced that the program was ending. For families who violated the one-child policy, there were sanctions: fines, wage cuts, employment termination, and difficulty in obtaining governmental assistance. China’s one-child policy has probably gotten as much time in the spotlight as the size of its population, the world’s largest at more than 1.39 billion people. The people who do not support it state that it abuses the human rights. Moreover, decades of the one-child policy have made single-child households the norm, experts say. It is estimated that India will become the most populated country, surpassing China in 2027.  In 2015 China had an estimated 150 million single-child families with an estimated two-thirds of those thought to be a direct result of the policy. After 2024, India is expected to become the world's most populous, when both countries' populations are expected to reach about 1.4 billion. The one-child policy was originally designed to be a "One-Generation Policy". Only the Han people —the world’s largest ethnic group—were expected to comply. The rationale for implementing the policy was to reduce the growth rate of China’s enormous population. For more than 35 years, China's one-child policy limited the country's population growth. A voluntary program was announced in late 1978 that encouraged families to have no more than two children, one child being preferable. Ken Pletcher was Senior Editor, Geography and History for Encyclopædia Britannica. However, that stricter requirement was then applied unevenly across the country among the provinces, and by 1980 the central government sought to standardize the one-child policy nationwide. When the one-child policy was adopted in 1979, China's population was about 972 million people. Ethnic minorities, such as Uighurs and Tibetans, were allowed to have more than one child, and so were rural Chinese families if their firstborn was a baby girl. It was in place until January 1, 2016. The policy was enacted to address the growth rate of China ’s population, which the government viewed as being too high. Although the number of such children is not known, estimates have ranged from the hundreds of thousands to several million. ), Matt Rosenberg is an award-winning geographer and the author of "The Handy Geography Answer Book" and "The Geography Bee Complete Preparation Handbook. The recent peak total fertility rate for Chinese women was in the late 1960s, when it was 5.91 in 1966 and 1967. The one-child policy (or family planning policy) was a policy introduced in the People's Republic of China in the year 1979. Sporadic efforts were made to modify the one-child policy. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. in Japanese studies from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Beginning in early 2016, all families would be allowed to have two children. Sign up to comment. Although some enforcement methods were mild, such as providing contraceptives and offering incentives for compliance, millions of Chinese had to endure stricter methods, such as forced sterilizations and forced abortions. Methods of enforcement included making various contraceptive methods widely available, offering financial incentives and preferential employment opportunities for those who complied, imposing sanctions (economic or otherwise) against those who violated the policy, and, at times (notably the early 1980s), invoking stronger measures such as forced abortions and sterilizations (the latter primarily of women). In rural areas, Han Chinese families could apply to have a second child if the first child was a girl. It is the largest of all Asian countries and has the largest...…, Birth control, the voluntary limiting of human reproduction, using such means as sexual...…. By using ThoughtCo, you accept our, People's Republic of China Facts and History, The Geography and Modern History of China, Predicting the 20 Most Populous Countries in 2050, Top 25 Most Populous Countries in the World, Women's Roles After the Revolutions in China and Iran, M.A., Geography, California State University - Northridge, B.A., Geography, University of California - Davis. The one-child policy is estimated by the Chinese government to … Partager. The policy was enforced by methods ranging from offering financial perks for families in compliance and providing contraceptives to implementing forced sterilizations and forced abortions. It ended after 2015, as China's demographics had been skewed due to the policy. (Immigration accounts for the remainder of the Chinese population growth rate. Geography GuideSite group—were expected to comply, country of East Asia make to ensure they would not have more.... 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