(adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); Platinum was discovered by South American peoples who produced artifacts of a white gold-platinum alloy. Platinum is used in catalytic converters, laboratory equipment, electrical contacts and electrodes, platinum resistance thermometers, dentistry equipment, and jewelry. Consumers who had high incomes and high credit scores were typically eligible for the lowest balance transfer and purchase APR offers, exclusive “members only” benefits and the best rewards programs. Heating this ammonium salt in the presence of hydrogen reduces it to elemental platinum. One of these items is a small box or casket dating to the 7th century BC. Platinum is malleable and ductile and has a high melting point. [84][85] Platinum has been identified by the FDA as a "fake cancer 'cure'". It has been employed as a catalyst since the early 19th century, when platinum powder was used to catalyze the ignition of hydrogen. [32] Platinum-based anodes are used in ships, pipelines, and steel piers. [25] In 1924, the geologist Hans Merensky discovered a large supply of platinum in the Bushveld Igneous Complex in South Africa. [33], When hexachloroplatinic acid is heated, it decomposes through platinum(IV) chloride and platinum(II) chloride to elemental platinum, although the reactions do not occur stepwise:[34]. Platinum, in the form of the mineral sperrylite (PtAs 2 ), is also obtained as a byproduct of the nickel mining operation … It was discovered by South American peoples. [73], During periods of sustained economic stability and growth, the price of platinum tends to be as much as twice the price of gold, whereas during periods of economic uncertainty,[74] the price of platinum tends to decrease due to reduced industrial demand, falling below the price of gold. It was the first British crown to be made of this particular metal. [54] Brownrigg also made note of platinum's extremely high melting point and refractoriness toward borax. Watchmakers appreciate the unique properties of platinum, as it neither tarnishes nor wears out (the latter quality relative to gold). The neptunium-238 then decayed into plutonium-238 through beta decay. As is expected, tetracoordinate platinum(II) compounds tend to adopt 16-electron square planar geometries. "Platinum" debit and credit cards have greater privileges than "gold" cards. The first scientist to isolate platinum in its pure element form … After several months, Chabaneau succeeded in producing 23 kilograms of pure, malleable platinum by hammering and compressing the sponge form while white-hot. Chabeneau realized the infusibility of platinum would lend value to objects made of it, and so started a business with Joaquín Cabezas producing platinum ingots and utensils. Three chemists, Lavoisier, Seguin and Musnier began working together in the late 18 th century to improve the design of their furnaces to enable platinum to be melted without the need of fluxes such as arsenic. The specific layer he found, named the Merensky Reef, contains around 75% of the world's known platinum. These include BaPt, Ba3Pt2, and Ba2Pt. This experiment wasn't shared with the rest of the scientific community until 1946, … [58], If pure platinum is found in placer deposits or other ores, it is isolated from them by various methods of subtracting impurities. The standard hydrogen electrode also uses a platinized platinum electrode due to its corrosion resistance, and other attributes. Most platinum is derived from a mineral called cooperite, also known as platinum sulfide. Abundance earth’s crust: 5 parts per billion by weight, 0.5 parts per billion by moles, Abundance solar system: 9 part per billion by weight, 0.06 parts per billion by moles. He had intended to name it after the newly discovered asteroid , Ceres , but by the time he published his results in 1804, cerium had taken that name. LEARN MORE about the different membership levels on our Benefits page. The Italian-French physician Julius Caesar Scaliger alluded (1557) to a refractory metal, probably platinum, found between Darién and Mexico. The metal had been called platina ("little silver") by the natives. Platinum is used in jewelry, decoration and dental work. These ancient uses of platinum likely did not consist of the pure metal itself; rather, they likely were made from commonly found platinum mixtures (or “alloys”) that included p… English chemist William H Wollaston developed a commercial process for producing pure platinum in the early 19th century. These compounds are capable of crosslinking DNA, and kill cells by similar pathways to alkylating chemotherapeutic agents. Jewellery trade publications advise jewellers to present minute surface scratches (which they term patina) as a desirable feature in attempt to enhance value of platinum products. [10][11] The metal has excellent resistance to corrosion, is stable at high temperatures and has stable electrical properties. [61] Mining and refining platinum has environmental impacts. In 1557, an Italian-French scientist, Julius Caesar Scaliger, analyzed the new metal and discovered that it was not silver as originally suspected. The name was given to the material because it got in the way of mining silver and gold. [48] To work the metal, they would combine gold and platinum powders by sintering. The current OSHA standard is 2 micrograms per cubic meter of air averaged over an 8-hour work shift. Chabaneau succeeded in removing various impurities from the ore, including gold, mercury, lead, copper, and iron. [14] Platinum drugs are used to treat a wide variety of cancers, including testicular and ovarian carcinomas, melanoma, small-cell and non-small-cell lung cancer, myelomas and lymphomas. The casket was found at Thebes in Upper Egypt and it is decorated with gold and silver hieroglyphs with the name Shepenupet II. In the course of his studies on platinum ores he also discovered the metals osmium, iridium, rhodium and palladium – the elements which had made Chabaneaus’ work so frustrating. It … It is greyish white metallic element commonly mixed with other metals for instance, osmium, nickel or iridium. 190Pt and 198Pt are predicted to have energetically favorable double beta decay paths. In 1750, after studying the platinum sent to him by Wood, Brownrigg presented a detailed account of the metal to the Royal Society, stating that he had seen no mention of it in any previous accounts of known minerals. Between the end of the First World War and the 1950s, Canada was the world's major source of supply. Because it occurs naturally in the alluvial sands of various rivers, it was first used by pre-Columbian South American natives to produce artifacts. The previous bar was made of platinum in 1799. raman November 6, 2011 3 Comments. The Standard Platinum Resistance Thermometer (SPRT) is one of the four types of thermometers used to define the International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90), the international calibration standard for temperature measurements. It is used for this purpose for its prestige and inherent bullion value. ), the possibility that platinum could enter the body and cause adverse effects has merited study. In 1758, he was sent to superintend mercury mining operations in Huancavelica.[52]. Platinum is also used in the petroleum industry as a catalyst in a number of separate processes, but especially in catalytic reforming of straight-run naphthas into higher-octane gasoline that becomes rich in aromatic compounds. It is also found in the mineral cooperite (PtS). Who Discovered Platinum Who Discovered Platinum : If you look at various sources – both online and in print – you are going to come across a reference to Antonio de Ulloa quite a few times. The +1 and +3 oxidation states are less common, and are often stabilized by metal bonding in bimetallic (or polymetallic) species. 8, 50 (1964)", "Seventy-fifth Anniversary of the Discovery of the Platiniferous Merensky Reef", 10.1002/0471238961.1612012019052513.a01.pub2, "Evidence of huge deposits of platinum in State", "Identification of meteoritic components in imactites", "Effects of relativistic motion of electrons on the chemistry of gold and platinum", "Synthetic metallomolecules as agents for the control of DNA structure", "Sur les métaux égyptiens: Présence du platine parmi les caractères d'inscriptions hiéroglyphiques, confié à mon examn", "Ancient Platinum Technology in South America: Its use by the Indians in Pre-Hispanic Times", "Several Papers concerning a New Semi-Metal, Called Platina; Communicated to the Royal Society by Mr. Wm. Plenty of platinum from South America the end of the first world War and the 1950s, Canada the... 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